Dog Health Questions

 

    1. Are some breeds of dog more prone to certain illnesses?
    2. Are some breeds much more subject to inherited diseases than others?
    3. What are the effects of having your dog neutered?
    4. How serious an operation is neutering?
    5. Do healthy dogs normally shed hair?
    6. If your dog keeps shaking his head does it mean there is anything wrong?
    7. If your dog has very pale gums and lips does it mean that he is suffering from anemia?
    8. My dog appears to have no control over her urination, what could be the cause of this?
    9. My dog has two wet streaks down his face, is the dog crying?
    10. What could be the cause of my dog having diarrhea?
    11. What are the most serious infectious diseases of dogs?
    12. Is infection the same as disease?
    13. What are the two most serious canine diseases?
    14. What sort of disease is hardpad?
    15. Is it true that distemper only occurs in young dogs?
    16. How common does infectious hepatitis occur in dogs and is it serious?
    17. Is kennel cough simply the result of barking a lot while in the kennel?
    18. Is it true that parvovirus infection is a new disease?
    19. Is parvovirus infection a killer illness?
    20. What is meant by fading puppies?
    21. Is it a fact that dogs acquire toxoplasmosis from cats?
    22. Is ringworm really caused by a worm?
    23. How does a dog get rabies?
    24. Can a dog showing clinical signs of rabies be cured?
    25. What diseases should your dog by vaccinated against?
    26. How old should a puppy be when it is first vaccinated?
    27. Do vaccinations always work?
    28. What are the most common parasites that dogs get?
    29. Why is it important to get rid of fleas on my dog?
    30. What are the two important microscopic mange mites which afflict dogs?
    31. Are flea collars safe for dogs to wear?
    32. What other skin parasites attack dogs?
    33. Should a tick be pulled from a dog's body?
    34. Apart from parasites are there any other causes of skin disease in dogs?
    35. How does your dog get infected with roundworms and are they harmful?
    36. What other worms might infect your dog?
    37. How can you tell your dog has worms?
    38. Can humans get worms from dogs?
    39. Is it a good idea to worm your dog, and if so, how often should you do it?
    40. Do dogs get cancer?
    41. What kind of tumors do dogs get most commonly?
    42. Is it possible to treat cancer in dogs?
    43. What other dog diseases come with old age?
    44. If my dog has to be put to sleep, how could I dispose of his body?
    45. If your dog is diagnosed with diabetes and will need an insulin injection every day, will it be to distressing for the dog and just kinder to put the animal to sleep?
    46. Are there likely to be any complications when treating a diabetic dog?
    47. Can your dog pass on any diseases to you?
    48. How can I minimize the chance of catching a disease from my dog?
    49. Do dogs ever get fitted with casts?
    50. How long is the average length of pregnancy?
    51. What are the anal glands or sacs?
    52. What should I do if my dog's anal sac does not empty properly?
    53. If my dog goes blind in old age, should I have him put to sleep?
    54. What is a proper way to give my dog a tablet or capsule?
    55. How should I clean a wound?
    56. How should I deal with heat stroke in my dog?
    57. What does it mean when my dog goes into heat?
    58. What can I do for my dog when she does go into heat?
    59. How long will she be in heat and how often will she go into heat?
    60. What is a hot spot?
    61. How do I know if my pet is hypothermic?
    62. What happens to my dog if he/she has frostbite?
    63. Is there a safe over the counter pain reliever that I can give my dog?
    64. How can you treat hair loss of your dog?
    65. At what age do puppies go into heat?
    66. What does it mean when a dog has blood in it's urine?
    67. What are some causes for a dog to drool?
    68. What is the treatment for a human that has mange transmitted by a pet?
    69. What is sarcoptic manage? Demodectic mange?
    70. What is coccidia?
    71. What are symptoms of ringworm in a dog?
    72. When should I have my puppy vaccinated?
    73. My dog sometimes eats his own feces. Is this harmful, and is there a way to stop it?
    74. What is hydrocephalus and can a puppy with the condition live a healthy life?
    75. My Dog appears to have a cataract in one of her eyes. What can I do?
    76. Can tapeworms be transmitted to humans?
    77. What can I give my dog when he is constipated?
    78. What is the danger of a false pregnancy in dogs?
    79. What treatment is used for Kennel Cough? What causes it?

     

    1. Are some breeds of dog more prone to certain illnesses?
    2. Yes, most canine breeds are likely to suffer from one or more specific types of disorders, some of which are definitely known to be inherited. Hereditary cataract can occur in Boston Terriers, American Cocker Spaniel, Miniature Schnauzer and Old English Sheepdogs ultimately resulting in complete loss of vision. Collie eye anomaly is an inherited defect of the Collie breed which causes poor vision Hip dysplasia can occur in all breeds but affects more than 20% of dogs in some of them, including German Shepherds and Retrievers. Chihuahuas may suffer from hydrocephalus due to an excess of cerebral fluid. In Bull Terriers, Dalmatians and Sealyhams deafness is commonly found in dogs with a white coat or predominantly white marking and so on and so on.

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    3. Are some breeds much more subject to inherited diseases than others?
    4. There are seven breeds which it is known can suffer from twenty or more different disorders of genetic origin: American Cocker Spaniel, Beagle, Boston Terrier, Boxer, Bulldog and toy and mini Poodles. A further ten breeds are each subject to at least ten separate inherited diseases: Chihuahua, Collie breeds, Dachshund, Fox Terrier, German Shepherd, Great Dane, Labrador Retriever, Pekingese, St. Bernard and the Shetland Sheepdog.

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    5. What are the effects of having your dog neutered?
    6. In the female it is called spaying and means the removal of the uterus and the ovaries and in the male it is called neutering and is the removal of the testicles. In the female the main change is that the typical behaviour shown during 'heat' and its possible sequel-a 'false pregnancy', will not occur. She will not produce a discharge and she will not attract every male dog for miles. Otherwise the female appears unchanged. In the male neutering reduces roaming in about 90% of male dogs, in about two-thirds it stops aggression between males, and in about 50% it stops urine-marking in the house. There is no evidence that neutering/spaying causes a dog to be less active or reduces its prowess as a guard guide. There may be a greater tendency for a neutered animal to gain weight but this can be checked by reducing its food intake. Spayed females may develop urinary incontinence later, either because of the lack of estrogen or because of a change in the position of the bladder. Surveys show that only about 10% of females become incontinent.

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    7. How serious an operation is neutering?
    8. It is not as serious as the pet population problem. In males it is a relatively minor operation; castration involves removing the testicles of the anesthetized dog through a small incision into the scrotum. The surgical wound requires two or three sutures and heals quickly. In the female, spaying is a little more serious because it involves opening into the abdomen. Usually the incision is made on the underside of the abdomen. Between four and eight sutures are usually required. She should be restrained from running and jumping or walking long distances for

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    9. Do healthy dogs normally shed hair?
    10. Yes

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    11. If your dog keeps shaking his head does it mean there is anything wrong?
    12. Yes, almost certainly the external ear canal of one or both of his ears is severely inflamed, a condition known as otitis externa. Ear mites is another culprit and will cause your dog to to considerable head shaking and ear scratching. Foreign bodies in the ear canal can be responsible for ear irritation also. To identify and treat the cause the dog should be examined by your veterinarian.

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    13. If your dog has very pale gums and lips does it mean that he is suffering from anemia?
    14. Certainly this is likely if the pallor of these visible mucous membranes together with that of the tongue and inner lining of the eyelids is present continuously. Apart from anemia the only other important cause of extreme pallor of these membranes is shock.

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    15. My dog appears to have no control over her urination, what could be the cause of this?
    16. The involuntary passage of urine producing constant or intermittent dribbling, of which the animal is often unaware, constitutes true urinary incontinence. It needs to be distinguished from conditions in which so much urine is produced that the animals's bladder is unable to retain it for any appreciable period and from dogs that are not adequately house-trained or in which training has broken down, and from submissive urination.

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    17. My dog has two wet streaks down his face, is the dog crying?
    18. No, although these wet streaks are due to tears, dogs do not display emotions by crying. The lacrimal fluid (or tears) is continuously secreted by a gland above the eyeball for the purpose of washing away micro-organisms and dust from the surface of the eyeball. In normal dogs the fluid passes down the nasolacrimal duct into the nasal chamber, but if the duct becomes blocked, or if the bulging of the eyeball prevents the fluid from reaching the duct opening (as in flat-faced dogs such as bulldogs and pugs) it has no alternative but to flow down the front of the face.

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    19. What could be the cause of my dog having diarrhea?
    20. Virus such as distemper or parvo, irritant poisons, food poisoning or dietary allergies are the most common causes of diarrhea. In all cases where diarrhea persists or your dog is passing blood or rapidly becoming weak, veterinary attention should be obtained immediately.

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    21. What are the most serious infectious diseases of dogs?
    22. These are viruses.....distemper, hepatitis, ademovirus, parainfluenza, parvo, rabies, neonatal canine herpesvirus. These are bacterial....leptospirosis, bordetella bronchiseptica infection, brucellosis, trench mouth. This is fungal....ringworm.

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    23. Is infection the same as disease?
    24. No, infection is when a particular micro-organism has become established in or on the dog's body. If the dog's normal defense mechanisms are damaged or weakened thereby allowing the commensals to invade other areas, it can then produce disease.

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    25. What are the two most serious canine diseases?
    26. Rabies and Distemper

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    27. What sort of disease is hardpad?
    28. Hardpad is not a separate disease, but is a name given to those cases of distemper in which there is a marked thickening of the horny layer of the skin on the pads.

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    29. Is it true that distemper only occurs in young dogs?
    30. No, although it is true that this age group is primarily effected. Dogs under a year old account for 80% of clinical cases and those under two years for 90%. Any dog or any age that is not vaccinated against distemper or has a weakened immunity is at risk of contracting this deadly disease.

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    31. How common does infectious hepatitis occur in dogs and is it serious?
    32. The infection with the canine adenovirus type 1 is commonplace. The infection is most common in dogs that are unvaccinated. Some dogs only show signs in which a slight fever is detected while others die suddenly, having shown few, if any, signs beforehand.

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    33. Is kennel cough simply the result of barking a lot while in the kennel?
    34. No, kennel cough (canine respiratory disease) is a highly contagious disease which can be produced by a number of infectious organisms acting singly or in combination.

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    35. Is it true that parvovirus infection is a new disease?
    36. Yes, no evidence has been found to show that this disease existed in dogs before 1978.

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    37. Is parvovirus infection a killer illness?
    38. Parvo is a major life-threatening disease in dogs, although it is not as fatal as it was when if first showed up in dogs in the late 70's. Aggressive treatment for parvo has shown to have a high success rate in infected dogs. Parvo is responsible for two distinct disease syndromes: the most common is an enteritis seen in dogs from weaning onwards, and the other is a heart condition of young pups.

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    39. What is meant by fading puppies?
    40. "Fading puppies" is used to describe puppies that become ill, and often die, from the effects of infectious diseases soon after birth.

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    41. Is it a fact that dogs acquire toxoplasmosis from cats?
    42. Yes, by eating the feces of a host cat. The most common way for a dog to eat an oocyst of the parasite is by eating under-cooked meat or the flesh of an animal which is infected.

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    43. Is ringworm really caused by a worm?
    44. No, it is due to the effect of parasitic fungi.

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    45. How does a dog get rabies?
    46. Rabies is generally transmitted through the bite of an infected animal. Other routes of infection are possible but much less common; such as infective saliva can enter through a scratch or an existing skin wound, or droplets of saliva may be inhaled. Another way a dog can get rabies is if it eats the carcass of an infected animal.

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    47. Can a dog showing clinical signs of rabies be cured?
    48. Once clinical signs are present in a dog, or in man or any animal, no treatment is effective and the disease is always fatal.

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    49. What diseases should your dog by vaccinated against?
    50. There eight important diseases your dog should be vaccinated against. These are canine distemper, infectious canine hepatitis, canine parvovirus infection, rabies, leptospirosis and the three most common causes of kennel cough, namely canine adenoviruses, canine parainfluenza virus and bordetella bronchiseptica.

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    51. How old should a puppy be when it is first vaccinated?
    52. Puppies usually lose all maternal antibodies soon after six weeks old, so this would be a good time to start vaccinations. Bordetella can be given at three weeks old and rabies shouldn't be given before three months old. Parvo vaccine should be given at eight weeks.

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    53. Do vaccinations always work?
    54. Regrettably no, it does not. There are a small portion of animals whose immune systems do not respond in the normal manner to vaccines, or for that matter to natural infections. If a vaccine is administered after its stated expiration date and/or hasn't been stored in accordance with the manufacturer's instructions it will not not be effective. By way of reassurance, a survey of over 15,000 dogs was vaccinated against distemper, in an area where is was common and less than 1/2 % contracted the disease.

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    55. What are the most common parasites that dogs get?
    56. Fleas, ticks, ear mites, roundworms, and tapeworms.

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    57. Why is it important to get rid of fleas on my dog?
    58. Adult fleas are parasitic and survive by sucking the blood of their hosts. They are the most important single cause of skin disease in dogs. A heavy infestation may result in anemia. Fleas can transfer some infectious diseases from one dog to another. Fleas can transmit tapeworms to the dog.

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    59. What are the two important microscopic mange mites which afflict dogs?
    60. Sarcoptes scabiei canis is the cause of canine scabies, other wise called sarcoptic mange, a highly contagious disease spread between animals by direct contact. Demodex canis is the cause of Demodectic mange which occurs in some of the hair follicles of almost all dogs. It is believed that some animals develop an immunity to the mites which restricts their spread, but where this does not develop the mites proliferate causing inflammation and hair loss starting at an early age.

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    61. Are flea collars safe for dogs to wear?
    62. Flea collars are not designed to eliminate a heavy infestation of fleas, they are useful chiefly to control mild infestations. A tightly applied flea collar can produce a zone of acute inflammation around the neck of some dogs and in a few allergic individuals it will also cause dermatitis elsewhere on the body. If your dog develops signs of neck irritation, especially in the first week, or poisoning from the collar (e.g. depression, vomiting, diarrhea, and staggering) remove the collar immediately.

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    63. What other skin parasites attack dogs?
    64. Cheyletiella yasguri or "walking dandruff" is a white mite that with it's eggs give the appearance of extensive dandruff, though on close observation with a magnifying glass you can see that this dandruff is moving. The Trichodectes canis or biting lice feeds mainly on skin debris. Linognathus setosus or common dog louse sucks the dogs blood. Trombicula autumnalis or the harvest mite and the Eutrombicula alfreddugesi or the North American chigger are parasitic larvae which attach themselves to thin-skinned regions as the dog walks through vegetation. Calliphorid flies or blow-flies may lay their eggs in open wounds or in the soiled coat of an ill or elderly animal.

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    65. Should a tick be pulled from a dog's body?
    66. No, pulling a tick off usually causes its deeply embedded mouthparts to remain behind, and this may result in an abscess forming. You should try to make the tick slacken it's grip by applying alcohol, or ether, or by spraying it with an insecticidal aerosol spray, before carefully removing it with forceps. Any ticks removed should be burned.

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    67. Apart from parasites are there any other causes of skin disease in dogs?
    68. Yes, itching or pruitus is an obvious sign of skin disease, and although frequently caused by parasites, itching occurs whenever the skin is damaged or inflamed. Itching is one of the major signs of allergic skin diseases. Important allergies in dogs are due to inhalation of pollens, moulds or house dust, insect bites and stings and direct skin contact with chemicals in soaps and detergents, carpets, flea collars, plastics etc. Although foodstuffs are often blamed they are rarely responsible. Bacterial infections can cause skin diseases. Hormonal disorders can cause loss of hair, which is identical on both sides of the body, occurring without any skin irritation. Skin can also be involved in the growth of tumors and at times is affected by very bizarre conditions such as cutaneous asthenia in which the skin can be stretched to extremes but also tears very easily and canine icthyosis where much of the body surface is covered with grey scales and feather-like projections.

    69. How does your dog get infected with roundworms and are they harmful?
    70. Dogs can become infected by eating an infected dogs feces and by eating another animal that is infected. Puppies can become infected through their mothers. Toxocara canis infection can produce noisy breathing and coughing, especially during suckling in puppies under two weeks old. In older puppies, up to three months of age, there is persistent diarrhea with vomiting, whining and a pot-bellied appearance. In mature dogs clinical signs of ascarid infection are virtually non-existent.

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    71. What other worms might infect your dog?
    72. Tapeworms are long, flat worms attacked to the lining of the intestine with hooks and suckers, and in general they cause no signs of ill health. Hookworms inhabit the small intestine and infection can be caused by eating infected feces or by burrowing through the skin...particularly the feet. The whipworm inhabits the part of the large bowel called the caecum and usually causes no signs. Dogs become infected by the whipworm by eating infected feces. The lungworm inhabits the end of the trachea nearest to the lungs and may cause the infected animal to have a dry cough. The tracheal worm lives in the dog's windpipe and can cause coughing in an infected animal. The bladder worm is a fine hair-like worm found in the bladder, usually among packs of hounds. The hearworm infects dogs in the central and eastern parts of the United States, Australia and southern Europe. Mosquitos infect dogs with the heartworm and the damage by these worms can be severe. The giant kidney worm is the largest known nematode and dogs can become infected by eating raw or imperfectly cooked fish. The lung fluke can infect scavenger dogs that eat water snails and crayfish and causes intermittent coughing. And finally the Thelzia californiensis occasionally affects dogs and is transmitted by the deer fly. The worm lives beneath the third eyelid causing an intensely irritant conjunctivitis.

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    73. How can you tell your dog has worms?
    74. Ideally, at intervals throughout the dog's life, you should have your veterinarian test your dog for worms. You can sometimes tell your dog has worms by seeing the worms.

    75. Can humans get worms from dogs?
    76. Some worms can infect humans such as the roundworms, tapeworms, heartworms and hookworms.

    77. Is it a good idea to worm your dog, and if so, how often should you do it?
    78. Yes, it is advisable to give your dog a deworming treatment at 6 month intervals. If there is definite evidence of a worm infection, worming with the appropriate drug should be carried out as soon as possible and then repeated a month later.

    79. Do dogs get cancer?
    80. Yes, cancer is one of the most common conditions to affect dogs.

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    81. What kind of tumors do dogs get most commonly?
    82. Each year about four dogs in every thousand develop a tumor. Of these the most common are skin tumors, tumors of the mammary glands, tumors of bones, lymph nodes, testicles, one organ of the digestive tract (most commonly the gums of the mouth). Tumors appear earlier in Boxers than other breeds and is roughly four times as common. They occur tow or three times more frequently in Cocker Spaniels, Fox Terriers and Boston Terriers. Beagles have a very low incidence or tumor formation. Mammary tumors are 200 times less likely to occur in bitches spayed before their first heat.

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    83. Is it possible to treat cancer in dogs?
    84. Yes, treatment of certain types of cancer (i.e. malignant neoplasia) by surgery, radiation therapy and drugs may be successful in eliminating the tumor and preventing recurrence, especially if commenced in teh early stages of the cancer.

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    85. What other dog diseases come with old age?
    86. Kidney failure, progressive thickening and distortion of the mitral valve of the heart, bacterial infections of the urine, enlargement of the prostate gland in males, periodontal disease, degeneration of the cartilage lining the joints, slipped discs (Dachshunds account for about 70% of these cases), obesity, constipation, urinary and/or fecal incontinence.

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    87. If my dog has to be put to sleep, how could I dispose of his body?
    88. You can have the body returned to you for burial at home, you can have your vet dispose of the body. There are also pet cemeteries and crematoriums that can offer their services. And some people have even had their beloved pet cryonically suspended.

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    89. If your dog is diagnosed with diabetes and will need an insulin injection every day, will it be to distressing for the dog and just kinder to put the animal to sleep?
    90. No, the discomfort will be slight for the dog. Dachshunds are particularly likely to be affected.

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    91. Are there likely to be any complications when treating a diabetic dog?
    92. The most frequent complication in the management of a diabetic dog is the inadvertent infection of an overdose of insulin.

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    93. Can your dog pass on any diseases to you?
    94. Yes, external parasites transmissible to man include fleas, sarcoptic mange, the fur mite and ringworm fungi. Internal parasites are (as mentioned above) roundworms, tapeworms and hookworms and heartworms. Man can become infected with rabies, canicola fever caused by Leptospira canicola and Weil's disease due to L. icterohaemorrhagiae (this is more common than canicola fever). Bacteria may also be implanted in bite wounds. Salmonellosis, Campylobacter infection, and tuberculosis are other bacterial diseases which the dog may communicate to man.

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    95. How can I minimize the chance of catching a disease from my dog?
    96. When you discover your dog is infected you should treat the infection as soon as possible. Your dog may need to be isolated depending upon the dangers inherent in the transfer of the disease. You should always wash your hands after handling your dogs. The kissing of pets should be discouraged. Dogs should not be allowed to lick the face or sleep with humans or on beds. Dogs should not be allowed to lick plates and utensils used for human use, and their own feeding bowls should be washed separately from dishes that are for human use. The dog's feces should be collected and disposed of as soon as possible. Regular grooming and bathing of your dog will reduce infection being spread. Never feed dogs raw foods such as meats or eggs. Carrots and other vegetables and fruits are fine.

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    97. Do dogs ever get fitted with casts?
    98. Yes, fractures of the limbs below the elbow joint in the front limb and the stifle joint in the hind limb can be effectively treated with casts and splints.

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    99. How long is the average length of pregnancy?
    100. The average length is around nine weeks (63 days), but there is a good deal of variation depending on the breed; three days either side is quite common and even a week either side is not unusual.

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    101. What are the anal glands or sacs?
    102. The anal sacs are two small pouches situated on either side of, and a little below, the anus. They vary in size from a pea to a walnut. A small duct, or tube, leads from each to open at the anus. In their walls are numerous glands producing a secretion (very pungent and unpleasant smelling to us) that is stored in the sacs. When the dog passes a motion some of this liquid is squeezed out of the sacs to be deposited on the stool so that other dogs will be able to identify it.

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    103. What should I do if my dog's anal sac does not empty properly?
    104. You will need to remove this accumulated material by squeezing the sacs. It can be done either by gently squeezing both sacs together into a pad or cotton wool held over the anus, or with a hand covered by a plastic glove, inserting a finger throught the anus and squeezing out each sac in turn. If the secretion has solidified it may be necessary to flush the sac out while the dog is anaesthetized.

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    105. If my dog goes blind in old age, should I have him put to sleep?
    106. No, Many dogs that are partially or totally blind manage very successfully in familiar surroundings. Dogs adapt well to this handicap, particularly if blindness comes on slowly and if they remain among people they know and love. Similarly, with dogs that become totally deaf, they do very well if you appreciate that they cannot come when called or respond to other verbal commands, and you take care to keep them out of harms way such as traffic.

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    107. What is a proper way to give my dog a tablet or capsule?
    108. Often the easiest way a dog will accept a tablet or capsule is to conceal it in a tidbit of meat or cheese. You could also crush the tablet and add it to something appetizing like sardine oil or his favorite can dog food. If this doesn't work then the thing to do is to open the dog's mouth, place the tablet at the back and ensure that it is swallowed.

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    109. How should I clean a wound?
    110. The wound should be cleaned out within the first six hours of injury. In the next six hours bacteria multiply considerably. Any large foreign bodies should be picked out and any soil washed away. It will be easier to wash the wound, especially in long haired dogs, if the area is clipped of hair. Clean the wound using a pad of clean gauze or even paper towels. Soak the pad in water with a small amount of antiseptic or peroxide. Gently dab away and wipe away the dirt and/or pus. Dab the wound dry with clean gauze.

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    111. How should I deal with heat stroke in my dog?
    112. Immediately apply cold water to the dog's skin. If the animal is unconscious, it can be carefully placed in a cold bath or a small pool. Usually, there is an obvious improvement within five to ten minutes. Make sure you don't lower the dog's body temperature too much. If you have a rectal thermometer (and if you don't it is a good idea to get one) use it to determine your dogs temperature. When the dog's temperature has fallen to 102.5 F it is wise to stop the treatment. A dog's normal body temperature is around 101.5 F. Dry the dog and let it rest in a cool place with plenty of drinking water. If your dog's temperature begins to rise again....get the animal to your veterinarian.

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    113. What does it mean when my dog goes into heat?
    114. Heat or estrus is the time during which a bloody discharge first appears at the vulva of a female. During this stage of her reproductive cycle the female is sexually receptive and therefore can become pregnant.

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    115. What can I do for my dog when she does go into heat?
    116. If you are not a professional breeder you should keep your female dog out of sight during this time. Dogs can perform remarkable feats to reach a female in heat. You should keep her away from males for at least three weeks from the onset of bleeding or until all signs of her heat are gone. You can also buy doggie diapers if her bleeding is a problem. It is recommended to have your dog spayed.

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    117. How long will she be in heat and how often will she go into heat?
    118. The female heat generally occurs twice a year. The female dog will undergo a cyclical rhythm of reproductive function called the estrous cycle. Each dog has her own normal cycle that, once established, tends to repeat itself. Proestrus is the time during which a bloody discharge first appears at the vulva of the female. During this stage the follicles from which the ova are produced are growing. Proestrus usually lasts about 6-11 days and can last up to twenty-eight days. It's end is marked by the acceptance of the first male. Estrus is the period which the female is sexually receptive and breeding can occur. Many females continue bleeding throughout estrus, but some do not. Ovulation usually occurs about twenty-four hours after the first acceptance of a male. (about 10-11 days after the onset of bleeding). Ova survive and are capable of being fertilized for at least four days following ovulation. Estrus lasts about 5-9 days and can last up to 28 days.

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    119. What is a hot spot?
    120. A hot spot is a painful circle of inflammation that occurs when pets rub, scratch, lick or bite their way into baldness. It usually occurs when something irritating, like fleas, starts bothering the skin. The more the spot itches, the more your dog will scratch and the larger the spot will get. Hot spots usually disappear on their own, but if the spot hasn't disappeared in 24 hours see a veterinarian.

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    121. How do I know if my pet is hypothermic?
    122. Shivering is the earliest indication your dog is too cold. As hypothermia progresses, the dog becomes lethargic and weak, and it's gums may turn pale or bluish.

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    123. What happens to my dog if he/she has frostbite?
    124. Frostbite is dangerous because it normally goes unnoticed beneath fur. It affects ears, feet, tail, scrotum and mammary glands. After the initial numbness, pain and skin sloughing may occur.

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    125. Is there a safe over the counter pain reliever that I can give my dog?
    126. You can give your dog a regular strength buffered aspirin or baby aspirin once to twice daily for pain. The dosage would be 5 mg per pound. Do NOT give tylenol or ibuprofen!

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    127. How can you treat hair loss of your dog?
    128. You need to find out the cause of the hair loss and treat it accordingly. Some common causes are allergies, fleas, mange, and ringworm.

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    129. At what age do puppies go into heat?
    130. Dogs generally have their first estrous cycle at 6-12 months of age. Some large breed females may not have their first estrus until they are 12-24 months of age.

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    131. What does it mean when a dog has blood in it's urine?
    132. Some of the things this could be an indicatior of are urinary stones, cystitis, kidney disease, bladder cancer or a urinary bacterial infection.

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    133. What are some causes for a dog to drool?
    134. If drooling is unusual for your dog it could be poisoning or disease, nausea or mouth problems such as a stick lodged in the mouth or gum or tooth problems.

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    135. What is the treatment for a human that has mange transmitted by a pet?
    136. Your doctor would need to prescribe a treatment for you.

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    137. What is sarcoptic manage? Demodectic mange?
    138. Sarcoptic mange is commonly known as scabies and is caused by an external parasite that burrows deep into the skin. It is vary contagious. Demodectic mange is caused by a microscopic mite called Demodex canis. These mites naturally live inside hair follicles and only cause problems in some dogs. Demodectic mange is not contagious.

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    139. What is coccidia?
    140. Coccidia are single celled organisms that infect the intestine. Coccidia come from fecal-contaminated ground. Coccidia infection causes a watery diarrhea which is sometimes bloody and can even be a life-threatening.

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    141. What are symptoms of ringworm in a dog?
    142. The skin lesions that appear with Ringworm are vary, and do not necessarily form a ring. There will be hair loss, usually in small patches at first. Later the patches may disappear or appear at other locations on the skin. You may notice your dog scratching.

      It is important to start administering vaccines at eight weeks of age and to continue giving them at regular intervals until 16 weeks of age to gradually build up their own immune system as the immunity received from their mother diminishes. As an adult dog it is important to re-vaccinate each year to maintain immunity levels. At four months, those dogs that will be shown or kenneled should have the Bordetella bronchiseptica vaccines. At six months a rabies vaccination is required by law.

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    143. My dog sometimes eats his own feces. Is this harmful, and is there a way to stop it?
    144. Coprophagia is a behavior problem and can be harmful if your dog eats other dog's feces which could infect your dog with parasites and various infections. Plus, the act is very disgusting. The best way to stop it is to not let your dog have access to the feces. You will need to remove the feces immediately after the dog defecates. You can also leash walk you pet, and move away from the feces as quickly as possible after your pet defecates. You can then reward your pet for good behavior with a tasty treat. Give your pet a wide variety of appropriate objects to chew and spend more time playing with or exercising him/her.

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    145. What is hydrocephalus and can a puppy with the condition live a healthy life?
    146. Hydrocephalus is the excessive accumulation of cerebrospinal fluid within the brain. Hydrocephalus can cause a variety of neurological signs, including seizures, incoordination, abnormal behavior, a tendency to walk in circles, and blindness. These signs may come and go or become worse over time. Young dogs with mild signs may improve without treatment, as they get older.

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    147. My Dog appears to have a cataract in one of her eyes. What can I do?
    148. Prevention, early detection, and early treatment are the best methods of dealing with eye problems. Early detection and treatment may allow you to prevent your dog from going blind.

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    149. Can tapeworms be transmitted to humans?
    150. Humans can get tapeworms from fecal contamination of soil and water and where meat and fish are eaten raw or lightly cooked.

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    151. What can I give my dog when he is constipated?
    152. To treat your pet for constipation, the underlying cause must first be determined.

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    153. What is the danger of a false pregnancy in dogs?
    154. False pregnancies go away on their own in eight or nine weeks (the length of a normal pregnancy). During lactation the breasts can become huge and swollen or infected, so careful observation is necessary.

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    155. What treatment is used for Kennel Cough? What causes it?

    Kennel cough can be caused by a number of different airborne bacteria and viruses. If your dog is diagnosed with kennel cough, your veterinarian will likely prescribe an antibiotic to help prevent any secondary bacterial infection and a cough suppressant.